Most waters contain the minerals calcium and magnesium which are commonly known as hardness salts.
The use of a water softener removes these hard water minerals replacing them with soft sodium salts.
Softening the water minimises the problems caused by hard water such as reduced heat transfer, pipe work blockages and excess soap usage.
As the water passes through the water softener the hard calcium and magnesium salts are exchanged for soft sodium salts.
Eventually all of the sodium attached to the softener ion exchange resin is exhausted and the system needs replenishing. This is achieved by isolating the vessel from service and washing concentrated solution of brine through the resin reversing the reaction and replacing the calcium and magnesium with sodium.
The Prestige range of water softeners are available as a single vessels (simplex), or as two duty/standby vessels (duplex). For very large systems multiple vessels may be employed and regeneration of the units is via time clock control or water meter.